A New Cosmic Underleague Team

The NUMIDIA JOURNALS replace the deactivated Newshole Muckrakers in the cosmic Underleague. Like the Muckrakers the JOURNALS represent individuals associated with the history of journalism.

1999 Numidia Journals


Rookies are in italics

Christiane Amanpour, Pitcher
Cable News Network (CNN) reporter.

James Gordon Bennett, Pitcher
Publisher of the New York Herald. The Herald started as a "penny paper" in 1835. Bennett used the new telegraph technology to provide up-to-the-minute news coverage of the Mexican War in the 1840s. A newspaper can send more souls to Heaven, and save more souls from Hell, than all the churches or chapels in New York-- besides making money at the same time. Let it be tried. (Bennett, August 19, 1836 editorial).

Charles Coffin, Centerfield
Newspaper Reporter. Covered the American Civil War, from start to finish, as a Northern journalist. Considered an honest and objective newsman with a clear style of writing.

Benjamin Day, Rightfield
Newspaper Publisher. Started the New York Sun on September 3, 1833. The Sun was the first successful "penny" newspaper in America. By 1836 the newspaper was selling over 30,000 copies per day.

William Lloyd Garrison, Leftfield
Newspaper Publisher. Published the Liberator an abolitionist newspaper (late 1850s). His polemics against the institution of slavery in America caused the southern state of Georgia to offer $5,000 for his capture.

Katherine Graham, Pitcher
b. 1917
Newspaper Publisher. Chairman of the Board of the corporation that publishes the Washington Post daily newspaper and Newsweek magazine. The corporation she heads also owns a variety of television and radio stations. It was under Katherine Graham's leadership (she took over the family publishing business when her husband died in 1963) that the Washington Post published the Pentagon Papers in 1971 and exposed the Watergate scandal (1972-1974).

Horace Greeley, Pitcher
Newspaper Publisher. Founder of the New York Tribune in 1841. This newspaper, which Greeley also edited, was one of the most important newspapers of its time. Greeley supported organized labor, temperance, women's rights, an end to slavery and profit sharing. He was also the originator of the newspaper interview, publishing on August 20, 1859 a discussion with Mormon leader Brigham Young in which Young's words were reproduced exactly.

Henry R. Luce, Pitcher
Newspaper Editor/Publisher. Founder, with Briton Hadden, of Time magazine in 1923. Time, Inc. would also publish Fortune (1930), Life (1936), and Sports Illustrated (1954). Luce was editor-in-chief of Time, Inc. from 1929-1964.

Edward R. Murrow, Catcher
Broadcast journalist. A pioneer American journalist who became one of the most influential news commentator of his time. Considered an honest but forceful newsman he created award-winning television news shows such as "See It Now" (1951-1958), and "Person to Person" (1953-1961). Murrow headed the United States Information Agency during the Kennedy administration (1961-1963).

Adolph Simon Ochs, Infield
Newspaper publisher. In 1878 Ochs bought the Chattanooga, Tennessee Times and made it one of the most successful newspapers in the south. In 1896 he purchased the New York Times and made it the newspaper of record in the United States. Ochs accomplished this by avoiding sensationalism and insisting on objective, fact-based journalism. He selected the slogan "all the news that's fit to print."

James Otis, Outfield
American revolutionary statesman. Otis was a member of the "Committee of Correspondence" which consisted of a group of men who met and wrote about American independence. They published their views in the Boston Gazette which was itself a strong advocate for colonial independence. The Gazette and the Committee of Correspondence led the fight against the Stamp Act (1765).

Joseph Pulitzer, Utility
Publisher. Founder of the Pulitzer Publishing Company which merged the St. Louis Dispatch and Post in 1878. In 1883 Pulitzer bought the New York World. He also established the Pulitzer prizes "for the encouragement of public service, public morals, American literature, and the advancement of education." His will bequeathed money to establish a notable school of journalism at Columbia University, which opened in 1912.

Ernest Taylor Pyle, Firstbase
Newspaper journalist. During World War II he covered military operations in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France and the South Pacific. He won the Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for his stories conveying the fear and loneliness of American soldiers. Pyle was killed by Japanese gunfire while covering a battle near Okinawa.

Henry Jarvis Raymond, Shortstop
Journalist and Politician. With George Jones founded the New York Times in 1851. Raymond edited the Times from 1851-1869. In 1856 he attended the meeting that formed the Republican Party and he was a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1865-1867). Raymond also wrote a biography of Daniel Webster (1853) and A History of the Administration of President Lincoln (1864).

Albert D. Richardson, Secondbase
Newspaper Journalist. During the American Civil War, Richardson infiltrated the Confederate army and wrote reports from inside enemy lines for the Horace Greeley's New York Tribune newspaper. On May 3, 1863, Richardson was captured and incarcerated for 18 months by southern troops. He eventually escaped and continued to report on the war.

Mark Twain, Pitcher
Newspaper writer. Also known as Samuel Langhorne Clemens, he adopted the name Mark Twain as a reporter for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise in 1862.

Ida Bell Wells, Thirdbase
Newspaper publisher and editor. Part owner and editor of the Memphis Free Speech newspaper (1891-1892) in which she launched an anti-lynching crusade. In 1895 she published Red Record, a study of the history of lynching. From 1898 to 1902 she was secretary of the National Afro-American Council. In 1910 she founded the Negro Fellowship League.


Isaiah Thomas, Field Manager
Printer and Publisher. Published the Whig paper called the Massachusetts Spy. Known as an excellent printer he printed the first Bible printed in English in the United States as well as the first dictionary printed in the U.S. (Perry's Dictionary). Thomas authored The History of Printing in America (1810), and founded the American Antiquarian Society in 1812.

David Sarnoff, Coach
Radio & Television Broadcaster. In 1912, as a radio operator for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company, Sarnoff received a message from the S.S. Titanic explaining it had been hit by an iceberg and was sinking. Sarnoff's career took on a new direction in 1919 when the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) absorbed Marconi and by 1921, he was elected General Manager of the growing communications company. By 1930 he was president of RCA and became Board Chairman in 1947. He created the first radio chain in the United States with the founding of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) in 1926. He pioneered the use of color in television and was the first to produce color television shows and color television sets.

Edward Wyllis Scripps, General Manager
Newspaper Publisher. From his first newspaper, the Cleveland Penny Press, established in 1878, Scripps put together the first daily newspaper chain in the United States. The Scripps chain was known for its liberal and pro-labor points of view and its newspapers were inexpensive and widely available. In 1907 Scripps formed United Press (UP) which later became a dominant international wire service.

William Randolph Hearst, Team Owner
Newspaper Publisher. Founder of the Hearst journalism empire. Published the San Francisco Examiner, the New York Journal and sixteen other newspapers in twelve cities. The Journal sold more than one and a half million papers a day by 1898. The Hearst media conglomerate included magazines, news, editorial, feature, film and photography services. Hearst was accused of promoting the Spanish-American War in 1898 in order to sell more newspapers. He is also credited with the creating "yellow journalism" or news that did not necessarily fit the facts. The American filmmaker Orson Welles made Citizen Kane which is a thinly veiled and critical biodrama of Hearst's life.

Bleyer, William Grosvenor. The History of American Journalism. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston: 1927

Lee, James Melvin. History of American Journalism. Garden City Publishers, New York: 1923

Marzio, Peter. The Men and Machines of American Journalism. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.














Home Park
Ampsaga Fields
Capacity: 8,899 Seats

Cosmic Player Plates
Scheduled 1999 Cosmic Player Plates:

  • Horace Greeley

  • Edward W. Scripps

Selected Journalism Timeline


1500	Alphabet appears 
	in Phoenicia

775 	Phonetic alphabet 
	appears in Greece 

500	Pen and ink in use 
	in China


105	Paper invented in China

450	Printing developed in China

1049	Movable type using clay 
	developed in China

1241	Metal type developed by 

1450	Newsletters circulate
	 in Europe

1451	Gutenberg prints a poem 
	on a printing press

1500	Some 10 million copies of 
	35,000 books have been 
	printed in Europe

1565	The Pencil is invented

1609	First regularly printed 
	newspaper appears 
	in Germany

1631	First newspaper classified 
	ads appear in France

1639	First printing press in the 
	American colonies

1704	First newspaper 
	published in America,
	Boston News-Letter

1714	First English patent for 
	a typewriter given to 
	Henry Mill

1780	Steel pens begin to 
	replace quill feather pens

1833	"Penny" newspapers 
	appear 	in United States

1841	Newspaper advertising 
	agencies appear

1846	Double cylinder rotary 
	press can print 8,000 
	sheets per minute

1875	Mimeograph is invented 
	by Thomas Edison

1880	Newspapers begin printing 
	halftone photographs

1886	Linotype machine is 
	invented to set 
	movable type

1892	Portable typewriters are 

1901	First electric typewriter; 
	Marconi sends first radio
	signal across 
	Atlantic Ocean

1928	First television sets 
	are made

1929	Car radios appear

1951	1,500,000 television 
	sets in the United States

1959	Microchip is invented

1963	First communications 
	satellite in 
	geo-synchronous orbit

1971	First word-processor 
	manufactured by Wang

1976	Apple I computer 
	is introduced

1980	Cable News Network 
	(CNN) begins 24-hour 
	news service

1981	IBM personal computer 
	is introduced

1984	Apple Macintosh 
	computer is introduced

1994	Internet is "privatized" 
	by the U.S. government

First American Newspaper

John Campbell, postmaster of Boston, published the first issue of the Boston News-Letter on Monday April 24, 1704. The publication was an outgrowth of the newsletter he had been sending to governors in the other New England colonies. The Boston News-Letter is judged to be the first printed American newspaper and it was published nearly continuously for 72 years under several publishers. Politically the newspaper became an organ for the government and loyal in its allegiance to Britain. This fact, of course, spelled its demise on February 22, 1776 shortly before the British evacuated Boston and the Declaration of Independence was signed.

1st Issue: April 24, 1704

Here are some selected examples of the contents of the first issue:

Boston, April, 18 Arrived Capt. Sill from Jamaica about 4 Weeks Passage, says they continue there very Sickly. Mr. Nathaniel Oliver a principal Merchant of this place died April 15 & was decently inter'd April, 18. Ętatis 53.

The Honourable Col. Nathaniel Byfield Esq. is commissioned Judge of the Admiralty for the Provinces of Massachusetts-Bay, New-Hampshire and Rhode-Island. And Thomas Newton Esq. Judge-Deputy for the Colony of Massachusetts-Bay.

The 20. the Rd. Mr. Pemberton Preach'd an Excellent Sermon on 1 Thes. 4. 11. And do your own business: Exhorting all Ranks & Degrees of Persons to do their own work, in order to a REFORMATION: which His Excellency has ordered to be Printed.

The 21. His Excellency Dissolved the Gen. Assembly.

Rhode-Island 22. The Rd. Mr. Lockyer dyed on Thurs. last

Related External Links

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1999 Numidia Journals- Official Team Roster
Published: December 20, 1998
Copyright © 1998-1999 by the Cosmic Baseball Association