Hans Berger, Infield
German psychiatrist. Investigations included the physical basis for mental functions. He devised the procedure of electroencephalography (EEG) which records human brain waves. EEG uses electrodes attached to the skull and connected to an oscillograph. The result is a visual picture of brain wave rhythms. EEG has become a standard diagnostic tool in neurology. After retiring Berger became depressed and committed suicide.
Bruno Bettelheim, Pitcher
Austrian-born U.S. psychologist. Trained as a Freudian psychoanalyst, Bettelheim became a recognized authority in the field of child psychology. While director of the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School (1944-1973), he was successful in treating emotionally disturbed children by using a method of unconditionally accepting their behavior. He wrote several books including The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales (1976).
Pierre-Paul Broca, Secondbase
French surgeon and anthropologist. In April 1861 Broca performed an autopsy on an individual known as "Tan" that revealed substantial degeneration in the subject's brain. While alive Tan was unable to speak properly. Broca's name now denotes a portion of the brain ("Broca's area") located in the left frontal lobe that controls speech. When this area of the brain is damaged what speech capability is left is usually curt and similar to the first phrasings of a child learning to speak. (The understanding of words, written or spoken is controlled by Wernicke's area in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.)
Gustav Fechner, Thirdbase
German physicist, philosopher and psychologist. Fechner founded the science of psychophysics which attempted to objectively measure mental events. He helped formulate the Weber-Fechner law that the intensity of sensation increases as the logarithm of the stimulus. Fechner also theorized that if the brain were divided into two parts by transecting the corpus callosum one mind would become two.
Marie-Jean-Paul Flourens, Outfield
French physiologist. Flourens provided the first experimental evidence that the cerebral cortex is responsible for the higher functions of the mind. He experimented on animals and birds and wrote, "Animals deprived of their cerebral lobes have...neither perception, nor judgement, nor memory, nor will...The cerebral lobes are therefore the exclusive seat of all the perceptions and all the intellectual faculties."
Walter Freeman, Centerfield
U.S. neurologist who advocated the use of psychosurgery to treat mental illness. Inspired by the work of Egas Moniz Freeman and his associate James Watts, a neurosurgeon, performed the first lobotomy in the United States on September 14, 1936. In the mid-1940s Freeman developed the trans-orbital lobotomy which became euphemistically known as the "ice pick lobotomy." By 1948 some 20,000 lobotomies had been performed in the United States. Despite Freeman's passionate support for the procedure, psychosurgery fell into disrepute during the 1950s. As the "Barnum" of lobotomy, Freeman traveled across the country lecturing and demonstrating his psychosurgical cure for mental illness. Freeman performed his last lobotomy in February 1967 when he lost a patient as a result of the procedure and had his surgical privileges revoked.
John Fulton, Rightfield
Helped develop the field of psychosurgery. In 1935 at a London conference of neurologists, Fulton demonstrated the effects of removing the frontal lobes of animals. Fulton had performed a lobectomy (complete removal of the lobes) on a chimpanzee called Becky who prior to the procedure would get agitated and frustrated during clinical experiments. After the brain surgery Becky displayed a a radical change in behavior. She was apparently incapable of becoming frustrated or agitated. (Incidentally both Egan Moniz and Walter Freeman attended the conference and Fulton's demonstration.)
Franz Joseph Gall, Pitcher
Originator of the concept of phrenology which claimed to be able to determine certain human character and personality traits by physical examination of the head. As a science, phrenology became discredited in the middle of the 19th century.
Carl Gustav Jung, Pitcher
Swiss psychiatrist. Originally a disciple of Freud and psychoanalysis, Jung broke with Freud in 1914 over a difference in their understanding of the role of infantile sexuality in the etiology of mental illness. Jung established his own school of "analytic psychology" which utilized the concepts of "extroversion" and "introversion." Jung's study of diverse cultures led him to the idea of the existence of archetypes of the collective unconscious which are constant across different cultures.
Heinz Kohut, Pitcher
Austrian-born U.S. psychoanalyst. Kohut spent some 20 years of clinical work on narcissism stressing its importance over the Oedipal complex in the development of human character and psychology. He rejected Freud's view of infantile sexuality. Kohut was president of the American Psychoanalytic Association (1964-1965) and a vice-president of the International Psychoanalytic Association (1965-1973). His major books include The Analysis of Self (1971), The Restoration of Self (1977) and The Search for the Self (1978).
William McDougall, Shortstop
British-born U.S. psychologist. Developed the "hormic" theory of human psychology which was critical of mechanistic behaviorism. McDougall believed that human beings were guided by instincts and cognition in the attainment of goals. In 1921 he wrote a book on Nordic superiority. At Duke University in the late 1920s he conducted research in parapsychological phenomena such as clairvoyance and telepathy.
Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, Leftfield
Portuguese neurologist. Developed cerebral angiography, a nonsurgical procedure for examining blood vessels of the brain by injecting opaque substances into the brain and taking X-Rays. Egas Moniz developed and performed the first human lobotomy ("prefrontal leucotomy") in 1936 which greatly influenced the work of Walter Freeman. Egas Moniz was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1949 for his efforts in the field of psychosurgery.
Wilder Graves Penfield, Catcher
U.S.-born Canadian neurosurgeon. Penfield developed a surgical procedure for the treatment of epilepsy. He also used a method of exploring the human brain that involved the stimulation of the brain with a weak electrical current. By stimulating various areas of the brain he as able to observe their effects. Penfield gathered clinical evidence suggesting that the temporal lobes of the human brain are the keys to understanding memory.
Jan Evangelista Purkinje, Pitcher
Bohemian physiologist. Purkinje (also spelled Purkyne) made a number of observations in physiology and microscopic anatomy including the discovery (1837) of the pear-shaped cells in the middle layer of the cerebellum's cortex now known as Purkinje cells. These neurons separate the two layers of the cerebellar cortex and carry commands concerning body movement out of the cerebellum..
Wilhelm Reich, Pitcher
Austrian psychoanalyst. Reich developed the theory that the discharge of sexual energy ("orgone") is necessary for individual physical and psychological health. He suggested that sexual repression was a characteristic of authoritarian social structures. After arriving in the United States in 1939 he established the Orgone Institute in Maine and developed a therapeutic technique for psychological illnesses that utilized his orgonomic theories. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration declared his therapy a fraud and Reich was sentenced to 2 years in jail where he died.
Charles Scott Sherrington, Utility
British neurophysiologist. In 1932 Sherrington won the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine (with Edgar Douglas Adrian) for his work regarding the function of neurons and synapses, terms he coined. "It is as if the Milky Way entered upon some cosmic dance. Swiftly the brain becomes an enchanted loom, where millions of flashing shuttles weave a dissolving pattern, always a meaningful pattern though never an abiding one; a shifting harmony of subpatterns." --Sir Charles Scott Sherrington.
Carl Wernicke, Firstbase
Polish-born German neurologist known for his studies of aphasia and encephalopathy. Wernicke made drawings of sensory and speech areas in the brain. A section of the brain that controls our understanding of words, spoken and written, is called Wernicke's area. In 1874 he discovered that damage in the left cerebral hemisphere (temporal lobe) causes an individual to lose the ability to understand words but has little or no effect on the ability to speak. (Speech itself is controlled by Broca's area in the frontal lobe.)
Jean Piaget, Field Manager
Swiss psychologist. At age 15 Piaget published an article on mollusks and he received his doctorate in science in 1918. His interest in psychology began with his observations of children and how they get to know space, time and causality. Piaget theorized that children pass through four mental stages in their construction and reconstruction of the world from direct experience. He linked cognitive and emotional factors in the development of intelligence. Piaget wrote more than fifty books and monographs including The Child's Conception of the World (1926. English translation, 1929).
Burrhus Frederic Skinner, Coach
U.S. psychologist. Originally encouraged in his literary pursuits by the poet Robert Frost, B. F. Skinner became interested in psychology as a graduate student at Harvard University. Influenced by the Russian physiologist Pavlov, Skinner became one of the leading voices of psychological "behaviorism." Skinner's hypothesis is that behavior can be conditioned by external reinforcements. His theory of behaviorism was detailed in his book The Behavior of Organisms (1938). His work led to specific ideas related to social engineering, see Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and dignity (1971).
Karl Spencer Lashley, General Manager
U.S. psychologist. Lashley studied the relationship between brain mass and learning ability. Using white rats in a laboratory he observed that the ability to learn is proportionate to the total amount of cerebral cortex tissue available. Lashley also pointed out that not every psychological function has a specific localization in the brain's cortex. He wrote Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence (1929).
Phineas P. Gage, Team Owner
Gage is not a scientist, nor is he a philosopher. His fame rests on the fact that on September 13, 1848, when he was 25 years old, an iron rod passed completely through part of his brain. Gage lived and functioned more or less normally. However his personality underwent a radical transformation. Before his frontal lobes were rearranged by the passing of the missile Gage was described as a friendly, energetic man. After the accident, he had become rude, insolent, spoke profanely and had a severe temper. Unable to return to his job with the railroad he spent much of the rest of his life in sideshows including P.T. Barnum's American Museum exhibiting his head and the rod that passed through it. Gage eventually ended up in San Francisco living with his mother where he died. By the 1860s the medical community had heard about Gage and the effects of his brain damage. His case indicated that the frontal lobes of the human brain were responsible for emotions and other personality-related characteristics.