The Ten Commandments
The origin of the Ten Commandments and their precise interpretations has been the source of theological debate for quite some time. The bible, in an early reference to document duplication, indicates that God created an initial set of tablets and then when they were broken, had Moses copy them onto a second set of tablets (See Exodus 34:1). An enumeration of the commandments is first found at Exodus 20:2-17. Religious scholars and academic researchers date the writing of these laws as occurring between 922 and 622 BCE. Four authors (or groups of authors) known as J, E, D and P have been identified. The concatenating of the rules, prohibitions and other directives into ten commands is also debated. Some theologists see at least 19 commands, others have enumerated 25. Sometimes referred to as the Decalog, it has been noted that the first five commandments are religious in nature and the latter five address the ethical and moral issues of society. In our day and in our culture, how many can enumerate even five of the commandments. What is the 6th directive, for example?
2 I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:
5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.
12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
13 Thou shalt not kill.
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.
15 Thou shalt not steal.
16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) began the "Ten Most Wanted" program on March 14, 1950. It is designed to enlist the support of the public and the media in the apprehension of criminals deemed dangerous to society. Since the program's inception 466 individuals have been placed on the list and 438 have been located. Seven women have appeared on the list beginning with Ruth Eisemann-Schier who was added in 1968. According to the FBI the following procedure is followed to determine who gets added to the list:
Ten Mosted Wanted Fugitives
"The Criminal Investigative Division (CID) at FBI Headquarters calls upon all 56 Field Offices to submit candidates for the FBI's
"Ten Most Wanted Fugitives" list. The nominees received are reviewed by Special Agents in the CID and the Office of Public and Congressional Affairs. The selection of the "proposed" candidate(s) is forwarded to the Assistant Director of the CID for his/her approval and then to the FBI's Deputy Director for final approval." (Reference: www.fbi.com).
|Ramon Eduardo Arellano-Felix
Born: August 31, 1964. Mexico
Wanted for: Conspiracy to import cocaine and marijuana. Considered armed and extremely dangerous. Reward: $50,000
Arellano-Felix is a leader of the so-called "Tijuana Cartel" which routinely tortures and kills people in connection with its illegal drug trafficking enterprises.
|Hopeton Eric Brown
Born: August or September 26, 1974. Montego Bay, Jamiaca
Wanted for: Drug conspiracy; carrying a weapon in relation to a drug-trafficking crime; murder in relation to a drug-trafficking crime; attempted murder of a witness.Considered armed and extremely dangerous. Reward: $50,000
On March 21, 1997, Brown and some of his associates, entered the St. Paul, Minnesota apartment of James Rodgers, a man who had been receiving drugs for Brown. When Rodgers could not produce the latest shipment, Brown and his cohorts opened fire, killing Rodgers. A female friend of Rodgers was also shot five times but survived. On January 14, 2001, in Montego Bay, Jamaica, Brown, along with a friend of his known only as "Pambo" shot and killed a man because the victim was leaning on Brown’s car. A stray bullet also killed a man sleeping in his home nearby.
|Victor Manuel Gerena
Born: June 24, 1978. New York, New York
Wanted for: Bank robbery; unlawful flight to avoid prosecution; armed robbery; theft from interstate shipment. Considered armed and extremely dangerous. Reward: $50,000
Gerena is wanted in connection with the September 1983 armed robbery of approximately $7 million from a security company in West Hartford, Connecticut. He took two security employees hostage at gunpoint then handcuffed, bound, and injected them with an unknown substance in order to further disable them.
|Eric Franklin Rosser
Born: January 17, 1952. Syracuse, New York.
Wanted for: Production, transportation, distribution and receipt of child pornography; conspiring to transport, ship, distribute, and receive child pornography. Should be considered an escape and suicide risk. NOTE: Rosser was caught on August 23, 2001 in Thailand.
Rosser was indicted in March 2000 for trafficking in child pornography, especially between Bloomington, Indiana and Bangkok, Thailand. One of his primary victims was his Thai wife's niece. A former member of John Cougar Mellencamp's rock band, Rosser more recently had been a featured pianist at the Bamboo Bar in the Oriental Hotel in Bangkok.
Born: March 19, 1974. Ukraine.
Wanted for: Unlawful flight to avaoid prosecution for murder. Considered armed and extremely dangerous.
NOTE: Soltys was caught on September 4, 2001 in Citrus Heights, California.
During the dog days of August, Ukrainian immigrant Soltys slashed to death his pregnant wife, two second cousins (ages 9 and 10), their grandparents, and his own 3 year-old son.
|Usama Bin Laden
Born: 1957. Saudi Arabia.
Wanted for: Murder of United States nationals outside the United States; conspiracy to murder United States nationals outside the United States. Attack on a federal facility resulting in death.Considered armed and extremely dangerous.Reward: $5,000,000
Bin Laden is accused of masterminding the August 7, 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar al-Salaam, Tanzania. He has been branded as one of the world's great terrorist leaders.
|James J. Bulger
Born: September 3, 1939. Boston, Massachusetts
Wanted for: Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) [violations.] Murder (18 counts), conspiracy to commit murder, conspiracy to commit extortion, narcotics distribution, conspiracy to commit money laundering, extortion, money laundering. Considered armed and extremely dangerous. Reward: $1,000,000
Bulger was a major organized crime figure in the Boston area, is being sought for extortion and RICO charges and in connection with multiple murders.
|Glen Stewart Godwin
Born: June 26, 1958. Miami, Florida.
Wanted for: Unlawful flight to avoid confinement; murder, escape. Considered armed and extremely dangerous and an escape risk.Reward: $50,000
Godwin was convicted of murder and sentenced to twenty-five years to life for a drug-related murder in the early 1980s, in which the victim was beaten and stabbed, and his body blown up in the California desert. On June 30, 1987 he escaped from Folsom State Prison by accessing the main storm drain and thereby reaching the American River where a raft was waiting. He is one of only three prisoners to ever escape from Folsom.
|Eric Robert Rudolph
Born: September 19, 1966. Merritt Island, Florida.
Wanted for: Maliciously damaged by means of an explosive device buildings and property affecting interstate commerce which resulted in death and injury. Considered armed and extremely dangerous. Reward: $1,000,000
On October 14, 1998, Eric Robert Rudolph, age 32, was charged with the fatal bombing at Atlanta's Centennial Olympic Park, as well as the double bombings at the Sandy Springs Professional Building in north Atlanta on January 16, 1997, and the double bombings at The Otherside Lounge in Atlanta on February 21, 1997. An arrest warrant has been issued on these charges. Rudolph was charged in February of 1998, with the bombing at the New Woman All Women Health Care Clinic in Birmingham, Alabama, on January 29, 1998. That bomb killed Birmingham police officer Robert Sanderson, and severely injured the clinic's head nurse, Emily Lyons.
|Donald Eugene Webb
Born: July 14, 1931. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Wanted for: Unlawful flight to avoid prosecution for murder. Attempted burglary. Considered armed and extremely dangerous and an escape risk.Reward: $50,000
In December of 1980, Webb shot and killed Saxonburg, Pennsylvania Police Chief Gregory Adams during a routine traffic stop. Webb has been on the FBI's Most Wanted list longer than anyone else on the current list. In the overall history of the list, he is second only to Charles Lee Heron, who was captured after 18 years and four months.