The PSYCHEDELPHIA WOODSTOCKINGS represent the Cosmic Baseball Association's team of interesting personalities from the 1960s. Gurus, cult and commune leaders combine with political activists and drug enthusiasts on a cosmic team that last season made it to the Cosmic Universal Series (The Woodsox ultimately lost the series in four straight games to the Paradise Pisces.) This season there are two rookies, the founder of Transcendental Meditation and the founder of a California commune.

Team Roster

Player Description Position
Muhammad Ali
Champion Heavyweight Boxer

Born 1942 as Cassius Marcellus Clay in Louisville, Kentucky. He was a 1960 Olympic gold medalist. Shortly after upsetting Sonny Liston in 1964 to become world heavyweight champion, he formalized his association with the Nation of Islam and adopted the Muslim name Muhammad Ali. His flamboyant boxing style and outspoken stances on social issues made him a controversial figure during the turbulent 1960s and early 1970s. After beating Liston, he defended his title nine times. In 1967 he refused induction into the armed services and became a symbol of resistance to the Vietnam War. The boxing establishment stripped Ali of his title and prevented him from fighting until the U.S. Supreme Court in 1971 upheld his draft appeal on religious grounds. Before retiring in 1981 Ali compiled a 56–5 record. In 1984 he revealed that he suffered from Parkinson's disease. His appearance at the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, to light the Olympic flame, moved an international audience.

Eldridge Cleaver
African-American Social Activist

1935-1998. Born Wabbaseka, Arkansas. Black Panther Leader. Education minister of the Black Panther Party. Grewing up in Los Angeles and spent much of 1954–66 in prison for various crimes including rape. In 1966 he joined the staff of Ramparts magazine, and soon became a member of the Black Panthers and eventually he became the organization's education minister.. In 1968 his book Soul on Ice made him famous. The next year, fleeing arrest following a Panther shootout with Oakland (Calif.) police, he began a period of exile in Cuba, Algeria, and other points, during which he broke with the Panthers. After his return to the United States in 1975, he espoused a wide range of political, religious, and commercial causes.

Angela Davis
Feminist/Civil Rights Leader

Born 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama. Davis taught philosophy (1969–70) at the Univ. of California, Los Angeles, until she was finally denied reappointment because of her membership in the Communist party and her advocacy of radical black causes. In August, 1970, she went into hiding after a gun legally registered to her was used in an attempted courtroom escape in which a judge and three others were killed. Apprehended two months later, she was tried on charges of conspiracy, murder, and kidnapping (1972). After several months in prison, she was released on bail and later acquitted. She has since taught at San Francisco State University (1979–91) and the University of California at Santa Cruz (since 1992). Davis was the American Communist party's vice-presidential candidate in 1980 and 1984.

Betty Friedan
American Social Reformer and Feminist

Born 1921 in Peoria, Illinois as Bettye Goldstein. She graduated Smith College with a B.A. in 1942 and did graduate work at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1963 she published The Feminine Mystique, which attacked the popular notion that women could find fulfillment only through childbearing and homemaking. In 1966 she helped found the National Organization for Women and served as its president until 1970; she helped found the National Women's Political Caucus in 1971. In The Second Stage (1981), she argued that feminists must reclaim the family and bring more men into the movement by addressing child care, parental leave, and flexible work schedules. In The Fountain of Age (1993) Friedan criticized “the age mystique” and society's frequently patronizing treatment of the elderly; she advocated new, positive roles for older citizens.

Lou Gottlieb
Musician and Commune Founder

October 18, 1924 - July 11, 1996. Lou Gottlieb grew up in La Crescenta, California and graduated UCLA with a B.A. degree in 1958. He sang briefly with The Gateway Singers but quit in 1958 to go back to school at U.C. Berkeley where he earned a Ph. D. in music. In July 1959 Gottlieb (bass), Alex Hassilev (baritone), and Glenn Yarbrough (tenor) formed a folk group called The Limeliters. They played in concerts and at folk houses like San Francisco's Hungry I and Hollywood's Ash Grove during the height of the folk music boom of the early 60's. The group would become the musical representatives for Coca-Cola. Their rendition of the jingle, "Things Go Better with Coke" became a national hit. Time magazine summed up their appeal with the memorable quote: "If the button-down, scrubbed-looking Kingston Trio are the undergraduates of big-time U.S. folk-singing, The Limeliters are the faculty." After a near-fatal plane crash in Colorado in December, 1962 Gottlieb retired from the trio. In 1967 Gottlieb opened up the legendary "Morning Star Commune" on his 32-acre ranch in California's Sonoma County. The commune, sometimes called the "Digger Farm" was the controversial home of countercultural patriots and an enduring symbol of the free land movement.

Ho Chi Minh
President of North Vietnam (1954–69)

1890–1969. Given Name is Nguyen That Thanh. In 1911 he left Vietnam, working aboard a French liner. He later lived in London and in the United States during World War I before going to France near the end of the war. There he became involved in the French socialist movement and was (1920) a founding member of the French Communist party. He studied revolutionary tactics in Moscow, and, as a Comintern member, was sent (1925–27) to Guangzhou, China. While in East Asia, he organized Vietnamese revolutionaries and founded the Communist party of Indochina (later the Vietnamese Communist party). In the 1930s, Ho lived mainly in Moscow and China. He finally returned to Vietnam after the outbreak of World War II, organized a Vietnamese independence movement (the Viet Minh), and raised a guerrilla army to fight the Japanese. He proclaimed the republic of Vietnam in September 1945. In 1946 differences with the French led a break between Vietnam and France. Warfare lasted until 1954, culminating in the French defeat at Dienbienphu. After the Geneva Conference (1954), which divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel, Ho became the first president of the independent republic of North Vietnam. The accord also provided for elections to be held in 1956, aimed at reuniting North and South Vietnam; however, South Vietnam, backed by the United States, refused to hold the elections because the U.S. feared an entirely communist Vietnam.

Abbie Hoffman
Yippie Leader

A countercultural icon of the 1960's, Abbie Hoffman was successful at turning many flower children into political activists. Hoffman was born into a Jewish family in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1936, and became active in the civil rights movement after graduating from Brandeis University. He was arrested in Mississippi during Freedom Summer, and two years later founded a crafts store in New York City, Liberty House, that sold the products of poor people's coops in Mississippi. In 1967, Hoffman and several friends threw dollar bills from the visitors' gallery onto the floor of the New York Stock Exchange, resulting in a near-riot as traders scrambled for the cash. During a major anti-war demonstration, he organized an "Exorcism of the Pentagon", in which he led over 50,000 people to surround the Pentagon in an effort to levitate the building by their combined psychic energy. He, along with Jerry Rubin and other activities, became "Yippies", and formed the Youth International Party. The Yippies held a Festival of Life at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which led to violence and arrests; these, in turn, led to the famous Chicago Seven trial (which started off as the Chicago Eight trial, but was reduced to Seven when Bobby Seale of the Black Panthers was bound, gagged, and sent to prison for contempt of court). For the next several years, Hoffman was a full-time activist until 1973, when he was arrested for the sale of cocaine. Facing a mandatory life sentence, he went underground and disappeared for 6 years, during which time he had plastic surgery, nervous breakdowns, and was an environmental activist under an alias. After emerging from hiding in 1980, he served a brief prison sentence and then re-entered the world of activism. He continued to organize people on college campuses and elsewhere, especially about environmental issues, until his death by suicide in 1989.

Oscar Janiger

Janiger is a Los Angeles-based psychiatrist who has received some notoriety for being one of the doctors who administered LSD therapeutically to Hollywood personalities such as Cary Grant. More importantly, Janiger, who began researching the effects and potential applications of LSD in 1954, stands in a dialectical relationship with the various Dr. Strangeloves hired by the U.S. government to investigate LSD in the 1950s and 1960s. Janiger never did work for the government nor did he take its money. Unlike the goons working for the Technical Services Staff of the Central Intelligence Agency, Janiger never administered LSD to a human being without telling the person. He did conduct an elaborate study of the effects of LSD. Nearly one thousand test subjects agreed to take LSD and report on the experience. Janiger studied the effects of LSD on creativity and he explored the use of the drug in society. He theorized that LSD might be useful in ushering in a new Eleusinian Mystery, appropriate for our own time.

Martin Luther King
Civil Rights Leader

1929–1968. Born in Atlanta, Georgia. Graduated Morehouse College (B.A., 1948), Crozer Theological Seminary (B.D., 1951), Boston University (Ph.D., 1955). In 1954 King became minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. He led the black boycott (1955–56) of segregated city bus lines and in 1956 gained a major victory and prestige as a civil-rights leader when Montgomery buses began to operate on a desegregated basis. King organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which gave him a base to pursue further civil-rights activities, first in the South and later nationwide. His philosophy of nonviolent resistance led to his arrest on numerous occasions in the 1950s and 60s. He achieved international recognition in 1963 when he led a protest in Birmingham, Alabama and spearheaded the August 1963, March on Washington, which brought more than 200,000 people to the Nation's capital. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On April. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel (since 1991 a civil-rights museum). James Earl Ray, a career criminal, pleaded guilty to the murder and was convicted, but he soon recanted and claimed he was duped into his plea. His conviction was subsequently upheld, but he eventually received support from members of King's family, who believed that King was a victim of a conspiracy. Ray died in prison in 1998. King wrote Stride toward Freedom (1958), Why We Can't Wait (1964), and Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community? (1967). His birthday is a national holiday, celebrated on the third Monday in January.

Timothy Leary
American Psychologist and Educator

1920–1996. Born in Springfield, Massachusetts. Received a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1950. He was dismissed as a professor of psychology at Harvard, where he taught from 1959 to 1963, for encouraging students to experiment with the hallucinogen LSD. He became an outspoken advocate of hallucinogenic drug use; his exhortation “turn on, tune in, drop out” became a catchword of the 1960s. After LSD was made illegal (1965) he was frequently arrested. In 1970 he escaped from prison and fled to Algeria; in 1973 he was extradited and returned to prison. After his release (1976) he continued writing and lecturing. During the 1980s and 90s the charismatic Leary styled himself as a postmodern guru, and celebrated computer technology as a utopian, boundary-demolishing force. He took leave of life in the style in which he had lived it, detailing his illness and drug-taking on the World Wide Web. In 1997 a Spanish satellite carried his ashes into space.

Charles Manson

Born in Kentucky in 1934, Manson was the unwanted bastard son of a prostitute. Manson spent much of his early life in juvenile detention facilities. As an adult Manson attempted to break into the rock music industry. Having failed in that ambition he settled into a role as a leader of a criminal cult and was responsible for the Tate-LoBianca murders in the summer of 1969.

Huey Newton
Black Panther Leader

Co-founder, with Bobby Seale of the Black Panther Party in 1966. The Black Panthers espoused violent revolution as the only means of achieving black liberation, and they called on all blacks to arm themselves for the liberation struggle. At the end of the 1960s, the director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover, said the Black Panthers had replaced the Communist Party as the single greatest threat to American security.In 1972 Newton and Seale abandoned their vierws on violence creating a break with Panther member Eldredge Cleaver. In 1974 Newton resigned from the party.

Phil Ochs

A folk and protest singer/songwriter, Ochs released 7 albums during the 1960s. Actively engaged in the social protests of his times he wrote:

"[I]f you feel you have been living in an unreal world for the last couple of years, it is particularly because this power structure has refused to listen to reason...Step outside the guidelines of the official umpires and make your own rules and your own reality."

Ochs committed suicide in 1976.

Lee Harvey Oswald
Presumed JFK Assassin

1939–1963 born in New Orleans, Louisiana. Oswald spent most of his boyhood in Fort Worth, Texas. Later, he attended a Dallas high school, and in 1956 he enlisted in the Marines and served until 1959. He became a Marxist and went to the Soviet Union in 1959 declaring his intention to renounce his American citizenship. In 1962 he returned to the United States, bringing his Russian wife and young daughter. In succeeding months, Oswald moved around the country, finally coming back to Dallas, where, in October, 1963, he obtained a job at the Texas State School Book Depository. From that building apparently shots were fired that took President Kennedy's life on November 22, 1963. Oswald fled the scene. Later that afternoon, a policeman trying to accost him was shot and killed. Oswald was later arrested and charged with both murders. On November 24, while in police hands, Oswald was murdered by a nightclub proprietor, Jack Ruby. In 1964 the Warren Commission held Oswald to be the sole assassin.

Katherine Power
Anti-Vietnam War Activist

Power was a 21-year-old student at Brandeis University when she and four other opponents of the Vietnam War robbed a branch of the State Street Bank of $26,000 in Boston's Brighton neighborhood to finance their anti-war activities. She was seated in their getaway car when William Gilday shot Officer Walter Schroeder in the back. Gilday drew a life sentence. After fleeing the crime scene, Power assumed the name Alice Metzinger and settled in Oregon in the late 1970s. She married, started a family and thrived in the restaurant business. She was working at a Corvallis tea and coffeehouse in September 1993 when she surrendered to Massachusetts authorities. Power pleaded guilty to manslaughter and served six years of an eight- to 10-year sentence. Massachusetts released Power from prison on October 2, 1999 and put her on 14 years' probation.

Jerry Rubin
Activist, Author, Yippie Leader, Entrepreneur

1938-1994.Born in Cincinnati, Ohio. A reporter for the Cincinnati Post and Times-Star (1956--61). In 1965 he was an antiwar organizer and cochairman for the Vietnam Day Committee, Berkeley, California.. In 1966 he ran for mayor of Berkeley. Also in 1966 Rubin was the first person ever to testify before the House Committee on UnAmerican Activities (HUAC) in costume. With Abbie Hoffman in 1967 he cofounded the Youth International Party (Yippie) and was an activist in Berkeley (through 1972). In 1968 Rubin was a vice-presidential candidate on the Peace and Freedom Party ticket and in 1969 he was a defendant in the Chicago 7 trial. Also in 1969 he wrote and published Do It! a book on radical political activism. In the 1970s he turned to holistic healing and led workshops at the Esalen Institute (1973--74). He was a therapist as part of the Fischer-Hoffman Psychic Therapy Process (1974). In the 1980s he repudiated political activism and became a stockbroker and then organized Jerry Rubin's Business Networking Salon in New York (1982). He and former compatriot, Abbie Hoffman, staged about 40 Yippie-versus-Yuppie debates nationwide (1985--86). In the 1990s Rubin turned to selling vitamins in major newspapers. He died as a result of being hit by an automobile in 1994.

Mario Savio
Free Speech Movement Leader

Mario Savio was the son of a New York machinist, a Catholic altar boy who excelled in physics. Later, he would spend four months in jail for supporting the rights of college students. He was arrested in a sit-in at San Francisco's Palace Hotel, demanding that blacks be hired for positions other than maids. He went to Mississippi to participate in the "Freedom Summer" voter registration campaign. Afterwards he returned to Berkeley to lead the local chapter of Friends of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC.) Later on Savio would raise three children and return to school at San Francisco State, where he graduated summa cum laude and earned a master's degree in physics. Shortly before his death at age 53 from a heart attack he was working against Proposition 209 to save affirmative action on California state campuses.

On December 2, 1964, in a speech to 6,000 demonstrators at Sproul Hall on the campus of the University of California at Berkeley, Savio, as one of the leaders of the Free Speech Movement declared:

"There's a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part. And you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus, and you've got to make it stop."

Fashion Model and Actress

Born September 19,1949 in London, England. She became a modelling superstar almost overnight at the age of 17, and was a symbol of the "swinging sixties' in London's Carnaby Street. She has made numerous appearances on television, and her films include The Boy Friend (1971), The Blues Brothers (1981), and Madame Sousatzka (1989).

Underground Film Actress

Born 1935 in France as Isabelle Collin Dufresne. Viva came to the United States as a young girl and became associated with the New York art scene. She met the artist Andy Warhol in 1965. Warhol described her as "popular with the press because she had a freak name, purple hair, and incredibly long tongue, and a mini-rap about the intellectual meaning of the underground movies." She appeared in the following Warhol films: **** ("High Ashbury" section, 1966) and I, A Man (1967). She is the author of Famous for Fifteen Minutes: My Years with Andy Warhol.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Hindu Spiritual Leader

Born c. 1911. Little is known of the Maharishi's early life. He studied physics at the University of Allahabad and worked for a time in factories. He later left for the Himalayas, where for 13 years he studied under Guru Dev, the founder of Transcendental Meditation. Guru Dev died in 1952In 1957 Maharishi Mahesh Yogi founded the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program and the worldwide Spiritual Regeneration Movement. Maharishi's first world tour took place in 1959 and brought him to the United States. The movement grew slowly until the late 1960s, when the Beatles, an English rock-music group, and numerous other celebrities began to join his following. Since then, many have left the movement, but Transcendental Meditation remains a popular form of relaxation, especially in the United States. The principles of transcendental meditation are discussed in the Maharishi's books The Science of Being and Art of Living (1963) and Meditations of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1968).

Howard Zinn

Born 1922 in New York City. Educated at New York (B.A. 1951) and Columbia (M.A., 1952; Ph.D., 1958) Universities. Zinn taught at Upsala College (1953--56), Spelman College (1956--63), and Boston University (1964--88; professor emeritus 1988). He received an Air Medal and battle stars for service in the U.S. Army Air Forces (1943--45). Active in social and political affairs throughout his life and an authority on the history of American civil disobedience, he participated with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s. As a prominent protester of American aggression in Vietnam, he helped secure the release of the first three American prisoners of war. He drew upon personal experience to discuss civil rights in SNCC: The New Abolitionists (1964); and American Militarism in Vietnam: The Logic of Withdrawal (1967). His work, A People's History of the United States (1980), approaches history from the viewpoint of working class and minority groups. His LaGuardia in Congress (1959) received the Beveridge Prize.

Team Staff & Management
John Lennon

1940-1980. Born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He was the Beatles rhythm guitarist, keyboard player, and vocalist, and a partner in the Lennon--McCartney song-writing team. He married Japanese artist Yoko Ono (1933-- ) - his second marriage - in 1969. Together they invented a form of peace protest by staying in bed while being filmed and interviewed, and the single recorded under the name of The Plastic Ono Band, "Give Peace a Chance' (1969), became the "national anthem' for pacifists. He had five more chart singles between 1971--4, but only "Imagine' (1971) had any immediate impact. On the birth of his son, Sean (1975-- ), he retired from music to become a house-husband. Five years later he recorded "(Just Like) Starting Over', but on December 8, 1980 he was shot and killed by a deranged fan just before its release. His death affected millions of people.

Spiro Agnew
39th Vice President of the United States (1969–73)

1918–1996. Born in Baltimore, Maryland. Agnew was admitted the bar in 1949. He entered politics as a Republican and in 1961 he was elected chief executive of Baltimore County. In 1967 he was elected governor of Maryland, where he won passage of an open housing law and expanded the state's antipoverty programs. Nominated in 1968 for the vice presidency on the Republican ticket with Richard M. Nixon, Agnew campaigned on a law-and-order platform. As Vice President, he attacked opponents of the Vietnam War as disloyal, criticized intellectuals and college students for questioning traditional values, and frequently accused the media of biased news coverage. In the 1970 congressional campaigns, he campaigned against liberals and antiwar candidates in both parties. Reelected with Nixon in 1972, Agnew was forced to resign on October 10, 1973, after a U.S. Justice Department investigation uncovered evidence of corruption during his years in Maryland politics; he was said to have continued to accept bribes while Vice President. He pleaded no contest to a charge of federal income tax evasion, was sentenced to three years' probation and fined $10,000. In 1974 he was disbarred in Maryland.

In a speech in Des Moines, Iowa on November 13, 1969 Vice President Agnew complained about:

"the dozen anchorman, commentators, and executive producers [who] decide what 40 to 50 million Americans will learn of the day's events in the nation and in the world."

Julius Hofmann
Federal Judge

Chicago judge who presided over the Chicago 8 trial (U.S. v. Dellinger and others), which began September 24, 1969.

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
United States Political Organization

Founded at a conference in Raleigh, North Carolina in April, 1960 by black college students, SNCC was dedicated to overturning segregation in the South and giving young blacks a stronger voice in the civil rights movement in the United States. . Ella Baker, a longtime promoter of community-based civil rights activism in the South, called on young protesters who were staging "sit-ins" to protest segregation to gather for a conference to discuss ways to coordinate their efforts and broaden the agenda of the sit-ins to include fighting all forms of segregation. Meeting in Raleigh, North Carolina, in April 1960, approximately 200 students announced the formation of SNCC. Starting in 1961, SNCC shifted its main efforts to organizing voter registration campaigns in heavily black, rural counties of Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. In 1964 SNCC helped create Freedom Summer, an effort to focus national attention on Mississippi's racism. The project's primary goal was to register black voters. In May 1966 a faction of SNCC committed to black separatism and headed by Stokely Carmichael took over the organization from John Lewis, who favored integration. SNCC then began to eject its white members. Carmichael soon issued a call for Black Power, a term used to describe a series of new tactics and goals, including an insistence on racial dignity and black self-reliance, and the use of violence as a legitimate means of self defense. SNCC and the Black Panthers cooperated on various levels in the late 1960s, organizing rallies and sharing offices in certain cities, but the relationship between the groups was often shaky, with SNCC members often disagreeing with the Black Panther's advocacy of violent confrontation. Carmichael was expelled from SNCC in August 1968 over his support for guerrilla tactics and the use of violence in urban areas. By 1970 because of the internal conflicts SNCC had become virtually defunct. Several of SNCC's early leaders went on to gain national prominence, including John Lewis, a U.S. congressman from Georgia; Marion Barry, mayor of Washington, D.C.; and Julian Bond, a national spokesman on civil rights issues and state senator in Georgia.

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    Psychedelphia Woodstockings- Season 2001 Official Team Roster
    Published: December 6, 2000
    Updated: June 28, 2001
    Copyright © 2001 by the Cosmic Baseball Association